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MKT230 Final Exam A+ Complete Solution complete solution correct answer key

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MKT230 Final Exam A+ Complete Solution complete solution correct answer key

MKT230 Final Exam complete solution correct answer key

consumer behavior

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

 

 

1. A marketer  who segments a population  by age and gender  is using                  to categorize consumers.

 

a. roles

b. demographics c. psychographics d. lifestyle

 

 

2. People  who belong to the same  social class  are most likely to have which of the following in common?

 

 

a. personality

b. family structure c. income  level

d. ethnicity

 

 

3. A consumer with a(n)                  attachment to a product  uses  the product  as part of his or her daily routine.

 

 

a. nostalgic

b. psychographic c. interdependent d. positivist

 

 

4. Which of the following is NOT closely associated with what your text terms  the “horizontal revolution”?

 

a. Web 1.0 b. Web 2.0

c. user-generated content d. C2C e-commerce

 

5. A basic  biological motive is called  a                 . a. demand

b. response c. need

d. want

6. Which of the following social science fields would most likely be associated with macro consumer behavior?

 

 

a. clinical  psychology b. human  ecology

c. experimental psychology d. cultural  anthropology

 

 

7. Evan does business in South  America. He has mastered Spanish and many cultural  norms,  but he still has problems  with cultural  differences in ethics. Many of the regulatory officials

Evan must  deal with expect  bribes.  Evan solves this problem  by bringing with him a number  of moderately  priced  watches. When an official admires  his watch,  Evan offers it to him or her as a gift. Later he puts  a new watch on his wrist. Evan’s situation demonstrates that                  .

 

 

a. universal  values are the basis  of business ethics b. a small lapse  of ethics  is acceptable

c. different  cultures define ethical  business behaviors differently

d. laws regulating  business have become  uniform because of the demands of a global economy

 

 

8. Morris Davis believes  that  advertising  and marketing  have too much  impact  on a consumer’s daily life. To fight this problem,  Mr. Davis recently  launched a website  called  “Junk  It!” His website  invites disgruntled consumers to communicate with him about  marketing  invasions of their privacy and individual  space. Mr. Davis believes  that  change  comes  slowly but that consumers must  fight to preserve  their culture  and freedom  from marketers and advertisers. Which of the following terms  best  expresses the actions  being taken  by Mr. Davis to disrupt what he perceives  as inappropriate marketing  and advertising  actions?

 

 

a. culture  jamming b. marketing  myopia c. cultural  symbolism

d. transformative consumer research

 

 

9. George says that  he sees  everything as “black  or white, no in between.” George would most accurately be characterized as a(n)                 .

 

 

a. consumerist b. collectivist

c. interpretivist d. positivist

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.  Amaya Simmons  wants to write a consumer behavior paper  about  the origins of green marketing with respect to pesticides. Which of the following sources  will she find most useful?

 

 

a. Unsafe  at any Speed  by Ralph Nader b. The Jungle  by Upton Sinclair

c. Silent  Spring by Rachel  Carson

d. The Hidden  Persuaders by Vance Packard

 

 

11.  Which of the following is the best  tool for consumer activists  to use in efforts to make the public  aware of unethical or questionable marketing  behavior?

 

 

a. B2C e-commerce b. Web 2.0

c. compulsive  consumption d. economics  of information

 

 

12.  As manufacturing costs  decrease and the amount  of products that  people  accumulate goes up, consumers increasingly  want to buy things  that  will provide                  value.

 

 

a. hedonic b. referent c. Gestalt

d. embedded

 

 

13.  When Jane  shops,  she must  feel the fabric of any potential clothing  buy before she even bothers  to see what the design  is. She has a high need  to touch.  Which sense  system  is important to Jane  in her clothing  shopping?

 

 

a. visual

b. auditory c. liminal d. haptic

 

 

14.  According to the                  factor leading  to adaptation, simple  stimuli  habituate because they do not require  attention to detail.

 

 

a. exposure

b. discrimination c. relevance

d. vigilance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15.  Size, color, position,  and novelty are all strategies for creating  which of the following?

 

 

a. vigilance

b. thresholds c. contrast

d. adaptation

 

 

16.  A common  practice among advertisers is to create  new relationships between  objects  and interpretants by inventing  new connections between  products and benefits. A classic  example of this was equating Marlboro cigarettes with the American frontier spirit.  Which of the following terms  best  describes this practice?

 

 

a. subliminal persuasion

b. consumer-modeling connections c. semiotic  relationships

d. figure-ground  projection

 

 

17.  Ben Perez is driving along a mountain road. In the distance, he sees  a road crew working on a fallen tree that  has blocked  the highway. When Ben first sees  the road crew, which of the following perceptual processes has been  engaged?

 

 

a. interpretation b. adaptation

c. attention d. exposure

 

 

18.  In the past,  ketchup formed an unbecoming “scum” on its surface  if it was exposed  to the

air, so manufacturers created the traditionally  shaped ketchup bottle  with the narrow opening. When chemicals were developed  to reduce  this oxidation,  it was then  possible  to sell ketchup in more conveniently  shaped containers. Customers, however, rejected bottles  that  didn’t have the traditional ketchup shape. This is an example  of the power of                  in the

marketplace.

 

 

a. schema

b. sensory overload c. hyperreality

d. thresholds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19.  Which of the following comes  closest  in characterizing the concept of hedonic  consumption?

 

 

a. Bill can’t get an advertising  jingle out of his mind when he enters  a store and sees  the product  the jingle advertises.

b. A new computer game rapidly replaced an older one because it had much  faster  action. c. Kim can never buy fashionable clothes  without looking carefully at their construction

and then  feeling the quality of the cloth with her fingers.

d. Marcus often buys products just to make his wife angry. He thinks  that  since  she is

such  a penny-pincher she ought to be punished. Buying unneeded items  is how Marcus punishes her frugality.

 

 

20.  Which of the following is most relevant  to a company  that  wants to position a new brand  on price leadership?

 

 

a. the closure  principle b. augmented reality

c. Weber’s Law

d. Gestalt  psychology

 

 

21.  Which of the following most accurately reflects  the current  thinking  about  the use of subliminal perception in marketing  promotion  and advertising?

 

 

a. It comes  down to a matter  of attention. If a viewer will pay enough  attention to a subliminal message, then  it can have specific  effects.

b. Subliminal ads can be effective,  but customers do not like them;  therefore, marketers avoid them.

c. There is some evidence  that  subliminal perception can have limited  effects, but the effects  are not specific  enough  to make subliminal messages effective  in advertising.

d. Subliminal messages are below the threshold of perception, so they cannot  be utilized in marketing.

 

 

22.  If a conditioned stimulus is only occasionally  matched with an unconditioned stimulus, the association between  the two will become  weakened. This is called                  .

 

 

a. interference

b. generalization c. extinction

d. the spacing  effect

 

 

 

 

 

 

23.  Determining  the most effective  reinforcement schedule to use with consumers is important to marketers. What type of reinforcement schedule is most likely being used  when after a period of time has passed, the first response a consumer makes  brings the reward?

 

 

a. fixed-interval reinforcement b. fixed-ratio reinforcement

c. variable-ratio  reinforcement

d. variable-interval reinforcement

 

 

24.  A department store decides to use “secret shoppers” at unannounced times  to test  for service quality among its personnel. Store personnel are rewarded  for excellent  service attitudes. Which of the following reinforcement schedules would most likely apply in this situation?

 

 

a. variable-frequency reinforcement b. variable-interval reinforcement

c. fixed-interval reinforcement d. fixed-ratio reinforcement

 

 

25.  What type of learning  theory emphasizes that  people  are problem  solvers who actively use information  from the world around  them  to master  their environment?

 

 

a. operant  conditioning b. cognitive learning

c. instrumental conditioning d. classical conditioning

 

 

26.                   involves a process  of acquiring  information  and storing it over time so that  it will be available  when needed.

 

 

a. Memory

b. Comprehension c. Recognition

d. Attention

 

27.                   memory permits  temporary  storage  of information  we receive from our senses. a. Sensory

b. Elaborative c. Working

d. Cognitive

 

 

 

 

 

 

28.  Within a knowledge structure, which of the following is the LEAST complex knowledge unit?

 

 

a. meaning b. script

c. proposition d. schema

 

 

29.  Many marketers use “the  good old days” as a common  theme  in promotional  messages. This is a strategy  of focusing  on                 .

 

 

a. nostalgia

b. memory spikes

c. the highlighting  effect d. the halo effect

 

 

30.  Sam Bolton hums  the Purina  Cat Chow jingle as he drives down the expressway. A thought suddenly  occurs  to Sam: “Why am I humming  this stupid  jingle? I don’t buy this stuff.  In fact, I don’t even have a cat.”  Sam knows this jingle through                  .

 

 

a. operant  conditioning

b. reinforcement modeling c. incidental learning

d. stimulus generalization

 

 

31.  Susan  Saurage  picks and runs her focus groups carefully.  She wants to make sure that each  focus group member  provides meaningful information  for her research purpose. As

she is examining  potential focus group candidates, she notices  that  three  men and two women seem  to provide “yes” answers regardless of what she asks them.  They seem  to want to be

on the focus group very badly and appear  eager to be “good subjects.” If Susan  follows prudent testing  methodology,  she should  reject  these  test  subjects in order to avoid the possibility  of which of the following biases?

 

 

a. affinity bonding  bias b. neophyte  bias

c. response bias d. order bias

 

 

32.  When a woman buys expensive  jewelry, which of the following needs  is most likely being expressed?

 

 

a. hedonic b. biogenic c. rational

d. utilitarian

 

 

 

 

 

 

33.  Goals can be considered positive or negative.  This is an expression  of a goal’s                 .

 

 

a. direction

b. dissonance c. valence

d. strength

 

 

34.  Which of the following scholars  is given credit  for developing  the ideas  that  serve as the basis for a number  of personality  tests, including  the Thematic  Appreciation  Test?

 

 

a. Murray b. Maslow

c. McClelland d. Herzberg

 

 

35.  Consumption at the extreme  low end of the involvement  continuum is characterized by

                , when decisions are made  out of habit.

 

 

a. formation b. inertia

c. flow

d. actualization

 

 

36.  Person,  object,  and situational factors  are the three  types of influences that  determine a person’s  level of                 .

 

 

a. enculturation b. needs

c. involvement d. values

 

37.  The                  is a scale  used  to measure terminal  and instrumental values. a. Hierarchy of Needs

b. List of Values Scale

c. Rokeach  Value Survey

d. Means-End  Chain Model

 

38.  An etic perspective on culture  is best  described as                 . a. experiential

b. objective

c. sentimental d. subjective

 

 

 

 

 

 

39.  In its advertising, an automobile company  emphasizes such  qualities as high miles per gallon of gasoline,  an excellent  rating in safety,  and high resale  value of its product. The company  is trying to appeal  to which of the following consumer needs?

 

 

a. biogenic  needs b. utilitarian needs c. sentiment needs d. hedonic  needs

 

 

40.  Bill has a toothache and he wants the tooth to stop hurting.  However, he has always been afraid to go to a dentist. What type of motivational  conflict is Bill experiencing?

 

 

a. an approach-avoidance conflict b. an approach-approach conflict c. an avoidance-avoidance conflict d. a core-secondary conflict

 

41.  The ideal self is a person’s  conception of how she                 . a. realistically  thinks  she is

b. imagines  others  to think of her c. would like to be

d. adapts to play different  roles

 

 

42.  The Sims Online and Webkinz are both examples  of                 , part of the growing market  of real-time, interactive virtual worlds.

 

 

a. avatars

b. computer-mediated environments c. self-image  congruence models

d. role identities

 

 

43.  Which of the following best  defines  what is implied  by the symbolic self-completion theory?

 

 

a. Consumers  delay purchases that  conform to their actual  self-image  until their self-concept is consistent with their social self.

b. Consumers  with low self-esteem tend  to buy products that  violate their self-concept. c. Consumers  select  products that  conform to their self-image  through  a process  that  is

largely subconscious.

d. Consumers  who have an incomplete self-definition tend  to buy products that  complete their identity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

44.  According to                  models,  we choose  products with attributes that  match  some aspect of ourselves.

 

 

a. impression management b. self-fulfilling prophecy

c. identity  marketing

d. self-image  congruence

 

 

45.  Many societies, such  as the United  States, have a tendency to expect  women to pursue

                 goals and men to pursue                   goals.

 

 

a. social class;  self-congruence b. androgynous;  hierarchical

c. extended self; self-completion d. communal; agentic

 

 

46.  According to recent  research, which of the following is not one of the three  American models of masculine identity?

 

 

a. breadwinner b. rebel

c. communicator

d. man-of-action hero

 

47.  A(n)                  is a particular model,  or exemplar,  of appearance. a. self-concept

b. ideal of beauty c. ideal self

d. cathexis

 

 

48.  A Unilever-sponsored survey that  asked  American women how they felt about  their appearance reported  which of the following?

 

 

a. The majority of respondents believe that  our society does not use reasonable standards to evaluate  women’s beauty.

b. The majority of respondents believe that  beauty  comes  from a woman’s physical appearance.

c. Positive feelings  about  the self were lowest in ethnic  groups such  as African American and Hispanic  women.

d. Older women were more likely to describe themselves as beautiful.

 

 

 

 

 

 

49.  Clay often exaggerates his positive qualities on his Facebook updates. He rationalizes the exaggerations by saying, “Who cares  what I’m really like anyway?” Clay has separated his

                 self from his                  self with his exaggerations.

 

 

a. collective;  actual b. ideal;  actual

c. ideal;  looking-glass d. outer; public

 

 

50.  Based  on motivational  research, which of the following consumption motives most likely explains  a person’s  motivation  to purchase gourmet  foods, foreign cars,  cigarette holders,  or perfume?

 

 

a. security

b. individuality c. eroticism

d. disalienation

 

 

51.  Jim sees  himself  as being confident, powerful, and heroic.  According to the BrandAsset

Archetypes model developed  by ad agency Young & Rubicam, Jim would be classified  as a

                .

 

 

a. Sage

b. Patriarch c. Warrior

d. Troubadour

 

 

52.  Popular  online matchmaking services  such  as match.com and eharmony.com offer to create your “personality  profile” and then  hook you up with other members whose profiles are similar. This approach focuses  on the quantitative measurement of                 .

 

 

a. animism b. id

c. personality  traits d. ego

 

 

53.  One important system  of psychographic research measures AIO categories. What do AIOs measure?

 

 

a. Age, Interests, and Otherness

b. Activities, Interests, and Opinions

c. Agreeableness, Ideas,  and Observations d. Activities, Ideas,  and Operations

 

 

 

 

 

 

54.  Which of the following is based  on the concept that  “birds  of a feather  flock together”?

 

 

a. geodemography b. parallel  scaling c. bimodal  scaling

d. psychometric synchronization

 

 

55.  According to the PRIZM NE system,  the                  cluster  is characterized as having new money; being parents in their 40s  and 50s;  living in newly built subdivisions  with tennis courts,  swimming pools, and gardens; and having high wine usage  and low motorcycle  usage.

 

 

a. Tobacco Roads

b. Blue-Blood Estates

c. Furs & Station  Wagons d. American Dreams

 

56.  Alcoholism and cigarette smoking are both examples  of                 . a. consumed consumer behaviors

b. shrinkage

c. consumer addictions

d. anticonsumption behaviors

 

 

57.  Hannah  was embarrassed when her friends  teased her about  dancing  on a table  on Friday night.  She tried to tell her friends  that  she is really quite  introverted  and shy. Her friends observed  that  Hannah  does not appear  shy when she is out on a weekend  evening.  Which of the following statements is most applicable in understanding Hannah’s  personality?

 

 

a. Personality  is a set of consistent traits  that  do not change  from one environment to the next. Either Hannah  or her friends  are wrong in their observations.

b. Personality  is a hypothetical construct that  grows stronger  with age. Hannah  will likely be extroverted for the rest of her life.

c. Hannah’s  behavior on a weekend  night is due to Freudian  problems  with her superego. d. Personality  is a person’s  unique  psychological  makeup  that  consistently influences

behavior within a certain  environmental situation. Although behavior will be consistent within consistent environments, it does not have to be consistent between environments.

 

 

58.  Which of the following theoretical models  measures attitude toward the act of buying (Aact), rather  than  the attitude toward only the product  itself?

 

 

a. the theory of trying b. the balance theory

c. the theory of cognitive dissonance d. the theory of reasoned action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

59.  The source  of a message has an impact  on whether  the message will be accepted or not. Two particularly  important source  characteristics are                 .

 

 

a. attractiveness and recency b. credibility  and recency

c. credibility  and attractiveness d. culture  and ethnicity

 

 

60.  Elements in television commercials have positive and negative  effects. Which of the following characteristics is most likely to have positive effects?

 

 

a. an outdoor setting  with the message as part of the setting

b. extensive  information  about  components, ingredients, or nutrition c. a large number  of on-screen characters

d. demonstration of product  in use

 

 

61.  According to the two-factor theory, the net effect  of being exposed  repeatedly to the same message is a combination of                 .

 

 

a. argument and counter-argument b. learning  and tedium

c. affect  and cognition

d. compliance and non-compliance

 

 

62.                   refers to a strategy  in which a message compares two or more specifically  named  or recognizably  presented brands  and evaluates them  in terms  of one or more specific  attributes.

 

 

a. Cognitive differentiation b. Emotional  appeal

c. Conclusion advertising d. Comparative  advertising

 

 

63.  The                  route to persuasion is taken  when the receiver is not really motivated  to think about  the arguments made  in a communication message.

 

 

a. central b. dual

c. subconscious d. peripheral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

64.  Which of the following describes the visual nature  of a social game?

 

 

a. milieu b. genre c. mode

d. platform

 

 

65.  If a consumer’s ideal state  is very near or identical to his or her actual  state, which of the following best  describes the type of problem  recognition  the consumer would most likely have?

 

 

a. need  recognition

b. opportunity  recognition c. search  recognition

d. no problem  recognized

 

 

66.  People  often make decisions on the basis  of mental  accounting. One facet  of this accounting is making a decision  based  on the way a problem  was posed.  This is called                  .

 

 

a. framing

b. positioning

c. the sum-cost fallacy d. loss aversion

 

 

67.  According to the theory called                  , a company  can make money if it sells small amounts of items  that  only a few people  want if the company  sells enough  different  items.

 

 

a. feature  creep b. Zipf’s Law

c. the long tail

d. neuromarketing

 

 

68.  What type of information  search  is a female  customer engaged  in when she scans  the newspaper  ads every day for new information  on fashions, even though  she isn’t thinking  of buying anything  anytime  soon?

 

 

a. prepurchase search b. delayed  search

c. ongoing search d. internal  search

 

 

 

 

 

 

69.  Latrell finds that  every time he goes to select  athletic shoes,  he always buys the same  brand.

In fact,  he doesn’t  even remember trying on any of the other competitive brands  even though some of these  brands  have attractive styles and prices.  Latrell’s purchase decision  process  has become  one of less and less effort. Latrell’s decision  process  is an example  of                 .

 

 

a. information  discrimination b. cognitive dissonance

c. ineptness d. inertia

 

 

70.  A typical antecedent state  that  a consumer might experience as he or she approaches the purchase environment is                 .

 

 

a. time pressure

b. product  disposal c. sales  interactions

d. point-of-purchase stimuli

 

 

71.  A                 includes a buyer, a seller,  a product  or service and other factors,  such  as how the physical  environment makes  one feel.

 

 

a. consumption situation b. postpurchase process c. purchase process

d. psychological  situation

 

 

72.  Others who are present in a consumer’s physical  and social environment when purchases are made  are called                  .

 

 

a. co-consumers b. challengers

c. purchase competitors d. by-standers

 

 

73.  A hotel chain  installed mirrors near the elevator banks  after receiving many complaints from guests  about  how long they had to wait for an elevator to arrive. The hotel was trying to

                .

 

 

a. avoid the effects  of queuing  theory b. reduce  procedural  time

c. minimize  psychological  waiting time

d. convert the elevator area to a being space

 

 

 

 

 

 

74.  In general,  people  from which of the following cultures have typically been  shown to wait the most patiently  while standing in a long line?

 

 

a. Italian b. Asian c. French

d. American

 

 

75.  Julie Morgan loves to go into Springer’s  Old Country Gifts. It always smells  like a field of spring flowers. The lighting gives all the products a warm glow, and the mood music  is just perfect  for casual  browsing. After her visit to the store,  Julie is always in a better  mood. Springer’s  Old Country Gifts has attracted Julie with its                 .

 

 

a. subliminal cues

b. marketscape theme c. atmospherics

d. store position

 

 

76.  Families  have alternatives in purchasing. In a(n)                  purchase decision, the group agrees  on the desired  purchase, differing only in terms  of how it will be achieved.

 

 

a. accommodative b. authoritarian

c. contemplative d. consensual

 

 

77.  A child in the                  developmental stage  will use storage  and retrieval strategies but only when prompted to do so.

 

 

a. limited b. cued

c. strategic

d. preoperational

 

 

78.  Rick and his decision  team  purchase office equipment that  will be used  by the entire organization  in the next month.  This is an example  of which of the following forms of decision making?

 

 

a. syncretic  decision  making b. collective decision  making c. synoptic  decision  making

d. individual  decision  making

 

 

 

 

 

 

79.  Ellen was asked  to fill out a questionnaire. She described herself  as more likely to engage  in exercise,  more likely to go out to bars and restaurants, and more likely to consume more alcohol than  people  in other age groups.  Which of the family life cycle categories would Ellen best  fit?

 

 

a. older couples  without children b. families  with young children

c. young bachelors and newlyweds d. families  with older children

 

80.  Of the following, parental yielding is most likely to happen in a family with                  parents. a. neglecting

b. authoritarian c. autonomic

d. indulgent

 

 

81.  Which of the following is an example  of utilitarian influence?

 

a. An individual  seeks  brand-related knowledge and experience from friends,  neighbors, colleagues, and relatives  who have reliable  information  about  the brand.

b. An individual’s decision  to purchase a particular brand  is influenced by the preferences of family members.

c. An individual  feels that  the purchase of a particular brand  will enhance the image others  have of her.

d. An individual  seeks  information  about  various brands  from a professional.

 

 

82.  Political  candidates who get the most media  exposure  are more likely to win an election because of the effect  of                  in determining one’s set of referents.

 

 

a. reference bias b. propinquity

c. group cohesiveness d. mere exposure

 

 

83.  When members of a group come together  with a certain  attitude, that  attitude becomes more extreme  after the group discusses it. This effect  is called                  .

 

 

a. the principle  of least  interest b. decision  polarization

c. responsibility diffusion d. social loafing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

84.  Product  information  that  is transmitted by individuals  to individuals  is called                  .

 

 

a. reactance formation b. product  shuffle

c. word-of-mouth

d. independent analysis

 

 

85.  Which of the following is NOT one of three  basic  themes of complaint websites  recently identified  in a study of such  Web sites?

 

 

a. identity b. injustice

c. legitimacy d. agency

 

 

86.  With respect to social organization, some barnyard  animals  exhibit signs of a dominance- submission hierarchy.  Which of the following terms  best  communicates such  a hierarchy?

 

 

a. king-of-the-hill b. dog-eat-dog

c. follow-the-leader d. pecking  order

 

 

87.  Which of the following theorists is best  known for arguing that  an individual’s relationship to the means  of production determines his position in society?

 

 

a. Max Weber

b. Horatio Alger c. Karl Marx

d. Thorstein Veblen

 

 

88.  If a social researcher wanted  to investigate social status in a small city, her best  choice

for a questionnaire would be one that  included questions or observations on education, area of residence, total family income  per year, and                 .

 

 

a. ability to communicate via the Internet and other electronic communication channels b. ability to win friends  and influence  people

c. occupation prestige  level of household head

d. membership groups of the primary income  earners

 

 

 

 

 

 

89.  Amos always felt that  it was unfair that  society created artificial divisions that  discouraged him from having friends  from different  social structures. Which of the following terms describes the process  that  Amos is having difficulty with?

 

 

a. the “silver spoon”  syndrome b. social stratification

c. bias

d. reference group affiliation

 

 

90.  Trisha grew up in a drug-ridden inner city neighborhood. Through sheer  determination and intelligence, Trisha is now a medical  doctor teaching on the staff of a large university hospital. Trisha is proud of what she has accomplished, but sometimes she feels like she isn’t quite

sure who she really is. The concept of                  assesses the impact  of such  inconsistencies.

 

 

a. invidious distinction b. habitus

c. status crystallization d. hierogamy

 

 

91.  The process  whereby a product  formerly associated with a specific  ethnic  group is detached from its roots and marketed to other subcultures is called                  .

 

 

a. deculturization b. deethnicization c. de-alienation

d. de-immigration

 

92.  People  and institutions that  teach  the ways of a culture  are called                  . a. progressive learning  models

b. acculturation agents c. host cultures

d. ethnography  facilitators

 

 

93.  Through the process  of                 , immigrants make the unfamiliar  familiar by integrating symbols from their former lives into their new homes.

 

 

a. maintenance b. warming

c. assimilation d. resistance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

94.  Demographically, which of the following are the two most important characteristics of the

Hispanic  American market?

 

 

a. It is a young group that  is now almost  totally bilingual.

b. It is a young group that  has stabilized its growth rate in recent  years. c. It is a mature  group with money to spend.

d. It is a young group and the Hispanic  family tends  to be large in size.

 

 

95.  Advertising to teens  typically depicts             .

 

 

a. qualified  experts  explaining  the benefit  of the product b. respected adults  recommending the product

c. family members of two or three  generations using the product  together d. “in” teens  using the product

 

96.  Culture is best  described as society’s                 . a. attitude

b. personality c. history

d. consciousness

 

 

97.  Which of the following is an object  that  is admired  strictly for its beauty  or because it inspires an emotional  reaction?

 

 

a. a craft product

b. a reality-engineered product c. a trial product

d. an art product

 

98.  A                 innovation  is a new product  that  creates major changes in the way we live. a. discontinuous

b. globally continuous c. continuous

d. dynamically  continuous

 

 

 

 

 

 

99.  Gen Akoi greatly values his micro-refrigerator. The refrigerator  is so small it will fit almost anywhere.  Gen believes  that  the efficient  use of space  is one of the characteristics any good product  should  have. With respect to the functional areas  of a cultural  system,  Gen is focusing on                  as a variable in selecting his products.

 

 

a. socio-psychology b. ecology

c. ideology

d. social structure

 

 

100. Pavel was an inventor.  He read that  there  were several million people  who could not sleep  at night until they looked under  the bed.  He invented  a light that  could be put under  a bed and went on automatically when someone  looked there.  Pavel’s product  is designed to help people perform a                 .

 

 

a. ritual

b. rite of passage c. convention

d. symbolic exchange

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