MKT230 Final Exam Complete Solution complete solution correct answer key
MKT230 Final Exam complete solution correct answer key
Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)
1. A marketer who segments a population by age and gender is using to categorize consumers.
b. demographics c. psychographics d. lifestyle
2. People who belong to the same social class are most likely to have which of the following in common?
b. family structure c. income level
3. A consumer with a(n) attachment to a product uses the product as part of his or her daily routine.
b. psychographic c. interdependent d. positivist
4. Which of the following is NOT closely associated with what your text terms the “horizontal revolution”?
a. Web 1.0 b. Web 2.0
c. user-generated content d. C2C e-commerce
5. A basic biological motive is called a . a. demand
b. response c. need
6. Which of the following social science fields would most likely be associated with macro consumer behavior?
a. clinical psychology b. human ecology
c. experimental psychology d. cultural anthropology
7. Evan does business in South America. He has mastered Spanish and many cultural norms, but he still has problems with cultural differences in ethics. Many of the regulatory officials
Evan must deal with expect bribes. Evan solves this problem by bringing with him a number of moderately priced watches. When an official admires his watch, Evan offers it to him or her as a gift. Later he puts a new watch on his wrist. Evan’s situation demonstrates that .
a. universal values are the basis of business ethics b. a small lapse of ethics is acceptable
c. different cultures define ethical business behaviors differently
d. laws regulating business have become uniform because of the demands of a global economy
8. Morris Davis believes that advertising and marketing have too much impact on a consumer’s daily life. To fight this problem, Mr. Davis recently launched a website called “Junk It!” His website invites disgruntled consumers to communicate with him about marketing invasions of their privacy and individual space. Mr. Davis believes that change comes slowly but that consumers must fight to preserve their culture and freedom from marketers and advertisers. Which of the following terms best expresses the actions being taken by Mr. Davis to disrupt what he perceives as inappropriate marketing and advertising actions?
a. culture jamming b. marketing myopia c. cultural symbolism
d. transformative consumer research
9. George says that he sees everything as “black or white, no in between.” George would most accurately be characterized as a(n) .
a. consumerist b. collectivist
c. interpretivist d. positivist
10. Amaya Simmons wants to write a consumer behavior paper about the origins of green marketing with respect to pesticides. Which of the following sources will she find most useful?
a. Unsafe at any Speed by Ralph Nader b. The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
c. Silent Spring by Rachel Carson
d. The Hidden Persuaders by Vance Packard
11. Which of the following is the best tool for consumer activists to use in efforts to make the public aware of unethical or questionable marketing behavior?
a. B2C e-commerce b. Web 2.0
c. compulsive consumption d. economics of information
12. As manufacturing costs decrease and the amount of products that people accumulate goes up, consumers increasingly want to buy things that will provide value.
a. hedonic b. referent c. Gestalt
13. When Jane shops, she must feel the fabric of any potential clothing buy before she even bothers to see what the design is. She has a high need to touch. Which sense system is important to Jane in her clothing shopping?
b. auditory c. liminal d. haptic
14. According to the factor leading to adaptation, simple stimuli habituate because they do not require attention to detail.
b. discrimination c. relevance
15. Size, color, position, and novelty are all strategies for creating which of the following?
b. thresholds c. contrast
16. A common practice among advertisers is to create new relationships between objects and interpretants by inventing new connections between products and benefits. A classic example of this was equating Marlboro cigarettes with the American frontier spirit. Which of the following terms best describes this practice?
a. subliminal persuasion
b. consumer-modeling connections c. semiotic relationships
d. figure-ground projection
17. Ben Perez is driving along a mountain road. In the distance, he sees a road crew working on a fallen tree that has blocked the highway. When Ben first sees the road crew, which of the following perceptual processes has been engaged?
a. interpretation b. adaptation
c. attention d. exposure
18. In the past, ketchup formed an unbecoming “scum” on its surface if it was exposed to the
air, so manufacturers created the traditionally shaped ketchup bottle with the narrow opening. When chemicals were developed to reduce this oxidation, it was then possible to sell ketchup in more conveniently shaped containers. Customers, however, rejected bottles that didn’t have the traditional ketchup shape. This is an example of the power of in the
b. sensory overload c. hyperreality
19. Which of the following comes closest in characterizing the concept of hedonic consumption?
a. Bill can’t get an advertising jingle out of his mind when he enters a store and sees the product the jingle advertises.
b. A new computer game rapidly replaced an older one because it had much faster action. c. Kim can never buy fashionable clothes without looking carefully at their construction
and then feeling the quality of the cloth with her fingers.
d. Marcus often buys products just to make his wife angry. He thinks that since she is
such a penny-pincher she ought to be punished. Buying unneeded items is how Marcus punishes her frugality.
20. Which of the following is most relevant to a company that wants to position a new brand on price leadership?
a. the closure principle b. augmented reality
c. Weber’s Law
d. Gestalt psychology
21. Which of the following most accurately reflects the current thinking about the use of subliminal perception in marketing promotion and advertising?
a. It comes down to a matter of attention. If a viewer will pay enough attention to a subliminal message, then it can have specific effects.
b. Subliminal ads can be effective, but customers do not like them; therefore, marketers avoid them.
c. There is some evidence that subliminal perception can have limited effects, but the effects are not specific enough to make subliminal messages effective in advertising.
d. Subliminal messages are below the threshold of perception, so they cannot be utilized in marketing.
22. If a conditioned stimulus is only occasionally matched with an unconditioned stimulus, the association between the two will become weakened. This is called .
b. generalization c. extinction
d. the spacing effect
23. Determining the most effective reinforcement schedule to use with consumers is important to marketers. What type of reinforcement schedule is most likely being used when after a period of time has passed, the first response a consumer makes brings the reward?
a. fixed-interval reinforcement b. fixed-ratio reinforcement
c. variable-ratio reinforcement
d. variable-interval reinforcement
24. A department store decides to use “secret shoppers” at unannounced times to test for service quality among its personnel. Store personnel are rewarded for excellent service attitudes. Which of the following reinforcement schedules would most likely apply in this situation?
a. variable-frequency reinforcement b. variable-interval reinforcement
c. fixed-interval reinforcement d. fixed-ratio reinforcement
25. What type of learning theory emphasizes that people are problem solvers who actively use information from the world around them to master their environment?
a. operant conditioning b. cognitive learning
c. instrumental conditioning d. classical conditioning
26. involves a process of acquiring information and storing it over time so that it will be available when needed.
b. Comprehension c. Recognition
27. memory permits temporary storage of information we receive from our senses. a. Sensory
b. Elaborative c. Working
28. Within a knowledge structure, which of the following is the LEAST complex knowledge unit?
a. meaning b. script
c. proposition d. schema
29. Many marketers use “the good old days” as a common theme in promotional messages. This is a strategy of focusing on .
b. memory spikes
c. the highlighting effect d. the halo effect
30. Sam Bolton hums the Purina Cat Chow jingle as he drives down the expressway. A thought suddenly occurs to Sam: “Why am I humming this stupid jingle? I don’t buy this stuff. In fact, I don’t even have a cat.” Sam knows this jingle through .
a. operant conditioning
b. reinforcement modeling c. incidental learning
d. stimulus generalization
31. Susan Saurage picks and runs her focus groups carefully. She wants to make sure that each focus group member provides meaningful information for her research purpose. As
she is examining potential focus group candidates, she notices that three men and two women seem to provide “yes” answers regardless of what she asks them. They seem to want to be
on the focus group very badly and appear eager to be “good subjects.” If Susan follows prudent testing methodology, she should reject these test subjects in order to avoid the possibility of which of the following biases?
a. affinity bonding bias b. neophyte bias
c. response bias d. order bias
32. When a woman buys expensive jewelry, which of the following needs is most likely being expressed?
a. hedonic b. biogenic c. rational
33. Goals can be considered positive or negative. This is an expression of a goal’s .
b. dissonance c. valence
34. Which of the following scholars is given credit for developing the ideas that serve as the basis for a number of personality tests, including the Thematic Appreciation Test?
a. Murray b. Maslow
c. McClelland d. Herzberg
35. Consumption at the extreme low end of the involvement continuum is characterized by
, when decisions are made out of habit.
a. formation b. inertia
36. Person, object, and situational factors are the three types of influences that determine a person’s level of .
a. enculturation b. needs
c. involvement d. values
37. The is a scale used to measure terminal and instrumental values. a. Hierarchy of Needs
b. List of Values Scale
c. Rokeach Value Survey
d. Means-End Chain Model
38. An etic perspective on culture is best described as . a. experiential
c. sentimental d. subjective
39. In its advertising, an automobile company emphasizes such qualities as high miles per gallon of gasoline, an excellent rating in safety, and high resale value of its product. The company is trying to appeal to which of the following consumer needs?
a. biogenic needs b. utilitarian needs c. sentiment needs d. hedonic needs
40. Bill has a toothache and he wants the tooth to stop hurting. However, he has always been afraid to go to a dentist. What type of motivational conflict is Bill experiencing?
a. an approach-avoidance conflict b. an approach-approach conflict c. an avoidance-avoidance conflict d. a core-secondary conflict
41. The ideal self is a person’s conception of how she . a. realistically thinks she is
b. imagines others to think of her c. would like to be
d. adapts to play different roles
42. The Sims Online and Webkinz are both examples of , part of the growing market of real-time, interactive virtual worlds.
b. computer-mediated environments c. self-image congruence models
d. role identities
43. Which of the following best defines what is implied by the symbolic self-completion theory?
a. Consumers delay purchases that conform to their actual self-image until their self-concept is consistent with their social self.
b. Consumers with low self-esteem tend to buy products that violate their self-concept. c. Consumers select products that conform to their self-image through a process that is
d. Consumers who have an incomplete self-definition tend to buy products that complete their identity.
44. According to models, we choose products with attributes that match some aspect of ourselves.
a. impression management b. self-fulfilling prophecy
c. identity marketing
d. self-image congruence
45. Many societies, such as the United States, have a tendency to expect women to pursue
goals and men to pursue goals.
a. social class; self-congruence b. androgynous; hierarchical
c. extended self; self-completion d. communal; agentic
46. According to recent research, which of the following is not one of the three American models of masculine identity?
a. breadwinner b. rebel
d. man-of-action hero
47. A(n) is a particular model, or exemplar, of appearance. a. self-concept
b. ideal of beauty c. ideal self
48. A Unilever-sponsored survey that asked American women how they felt about their appearance reported which of the following?
a. The majority of respondents believe that our society does not use reasonable standards to evaluate women’s beauty.
b. The majority of respondents believe that beauty comes from a woman’s physical appearance.
c. Positive feelings about the self were lowest in ethnic groups such as African American and Hispanic women.
d. Older women were more likely to describe themselves as beautiful.
49. Clay often exaggerates his positive qualities on his Facebook updates. He rationalizes the exaggerations by saying, “Who cares what I’m really like anyway?” Clay has separated his
self from his self with his exaggerations.
a. collective; actual b. ideal; actual
c. ideal; looking-glass d. outer; public
50. Based on motivational research, which of the following consumption motives most likely explains a person’s motivation to purchase gourmet foods, foreign cars, cigarette holders, or perfume?
b. individuality c. eroticism
51. Jim sees himself as being confident, powerful, and heroic. According to the BrandAsset
Archetypes model developed by ad agency Young & Rubicam, Jim would be classified as a
b. Patriarch c. Warrior
52. Popular online matchmaking services such as match.com and eharmony.com offer to create your “personality profile” and then hook you up with other members whose profiles are similar. This approach focuses on the quantitative measurement of .
a. animism b. id
c. personality traits d. ego
53. One important system of psychographic research measures AIO categories. What do AIOs measure?
a. Age, Interests, and Otherness
b. Activities, Interests, and Opinions
c. Agreeableness, Ideas, and Observations d. Activities, Ideas, and Operations
54. Which of the following is based on the concept that “birds of a feather flock together”?
a. geodemography b. parallel scaling c. bimodal scaling
d. psychometric synchronization
55. According to the PRIZM NE system, the cluster is characterized as having new money; being parents in their 40s and 50s; living in newly built subdivisions with tennis courts, swimming pools, and gardens; and having high wine usage and low motorcycle usage.
a. Tobacco Roads
b. Blue-Blood Estates
c. Furs & Station Wagons d. American Dreams
56. Alcoholism and cigarette smoking are both examples of . a. consumed consumer behaviors
c. consumer addictions
d. anticonsumption behaviors
57. Hannah was embarrassed when her friends teased her about dancing on a table on Friday night. She tried to tell her friends that she is really quite introverted and shy. Her friends observed that Hannah does not appear shy when she is out on a weekend evening. Which of the following statements is most applicable in understanding Hannah’s personality?
a. Personality is a set of consistent traits that do not change from one environment to the next. Either Hannah or her friends are wrong in their observations.
b. Personality is a hypothetical construct that grows stronger with age. Hannah will likely be extroverted for the rest of her life.
c. Hannah’s behavior on a weekend night is due to Freudian problems with her superego. d. Personality is a person’s unique psychological makeup that consistently influences
behavior within a certain environmental situation. Although behavior will be consistent within consistent environments, it does not have to be consistent between environments.
58. Which of the following theoretical models measures attitude toward the act of buying (Aact), rather than the attitude toward only the product itself?
a. the theory of trying b. the balance theory
c. the theory of cognitive dissonance d. the theory of reasoned action
59. The source of a message has an impact on whether the message will be accepted or not. Two particularly important source characteristics are .
a. attractiveness and recency b. credibility and recency
c. credibility and attractiveness d. culture and ethnicity
60. Elements in television commercials have positive and negative effects. Which of the following characteristics is most likely to have positive effects?
a. an outdoor setting with the message as part of the setting
b. extensive information about components, ingredients, or nutrition c. a large number of on-screen characters
d. demonstration of product in use
61. According to the two-factor theory, the net effect of being exposed repeatedly to the same message is a combination of .
a. argument and counter-argument b. learning and tedium
c. affect and cognition
d. compliance and non-compliance
62. refers to a strategy in which a message compares two or more specifically named or recognizably presented brands and evaluates them in terms of one or more specific attributes.
a. Cognitive differentiation b. Emotional appeal
c. Conclusion advertising d. Comparative advertising
63. The route to persuasion is taken when the receiver is not really motivated to think about the arguments made in a communication message.
a. central b. dual
c. subconscious d. peripheral
64. Which of the following describes the visual nature of a social game?
a. milieu b. genre c. mode
65. If a consumer’s ideal state is very near or identical to his or her actual state, which of the following best describes the type of problem recognition the consumer would most likely have?
a. need recognition
b. opportunity recognition c. search recognition
d. no problem recognized
66. People often make decisions on the basis of mental accounting. One facet of this accounting is making a decision based on the way a problem was posed. This is called .
c. the sum-cost fallacy d. loss aversion
67. According to the theory called , a company can make money if it sells small amounts of items that only a few people want if the company sells enough different items.
a. feature creep b. Zipf’s Law
c. the long tail
68. What type of information search is a female customer engaged in when she scans the newspaper ads every day for new information on fashions, even though she isn’t thinking of buying anything anytime soon?
a. prepurchase search b. delayed search
c. ongoing search d. internal search
69. Latrell finds that every time he goes to select athletic shoes, he always buys the same brand.
In fact, he doesn’t even remember trying on any of the other competitive brands even though some of these brands have attractive styles and prices. Latrell’s purchase decision process has become one of less and less effort. Latrell’s decision process is an example of .
a. information discrimination b. cognitive dissonance
c. ineptness d. inertia
70. A typical antecedent state that a consumer might experience as he or she approaches the purchase environment is .
a. time pressure
b. product disposal c. sales interactions
d. point-of-purchase stimuli
71. A includes a buyer, a seller, a product or service and other factors, such as how the physical environment makes one feel.
a. consumption situation b. postpurchase process c. purchase process
d. psychological situation
72. Others who are present in a consumer’s physical and social environment when purchases are made are called .
a. co-consumers b. challengers
c. purchase competitors d. by-standers
73. A hotel chain installed mirrors near the elevator banks after receiving many complaints from guests about how long they had to wait for an elevator to arrive. The hotel was trying to
a. avoid the effects of queuing theory b. reduce procedural time
c. minimize psychological waiting time
d. convert the elevator area to a being space
74. In general, people from which of the following cultures have typically been shown to wait the most patiently while standing in a long line?
a. Italian b. Asian c. French
75. Julie Morgan loves to go into Springer’s Old Country Gifts. It always smells like a field of spring flowers. The lighting gives all the products a warm glow, and the mood music is just perfect for casual browsing. After her visit to the store, Julie is always in a better mood. Springer’s Old Country Gifts has attracted Julie with its .
a. subliminal cues
b. marketscape theme c. atmospherics
d. store position
76. Families have alternatives in purchasing. In a(n) purchase decision, the group agrees on the desired purchase, differing only in terms of how it will be achieved.
a. accommodative b. authoritarian
c. contemplative d. consensual
77. A child in the developmental stage will use storage and retrieval strategies but only when prompted to do so.
a. limited b. cued
78. Rick and his decision team purchase office equipment that will be used by the entire organization in the next month. This is an example of which of the following forms of decision making?
a. syncretic decision making b. collective decision making c. synoptic decision making
d. individual decision making
79. Ellen was asked to fill out a questionnaire. She described herself as more likely to engage in exercise, more likely to go out to bars and restaurants, and more likely to consume more alcohol than people in other age groups. Which of the family life cycle categories would Ellen best fit?
a. older couples without children b. families with young children
c. young bachelors and newlyweds d. families with older children
80. Of the following, parental yielding is most likely to happen in a family with parents. a. neglecting
b. authoritarian c. autonomic
81. Which of the following is an example of utilitarian influence?
a. An individual seeks brand-related knowledge and experience from friends, neighbors, colleagues, and relatives who have reliable information about the brand.
b. An individual’s decision to purchase a particular brand is influenced by the preferences of family members.
c. An individual feels that the purchase of a particular brand will enhance the image others have of her.
d. An individual seeks information about various brands from a professional.
82. Political candidates who get the most media exposure are more likely to win an election because of the effect of in determining one’s set of referents.
a. reference bias b. propinquity
c. group cohesiveness d. mere exposure
83. When members of a group come together with a certain attitude, that attitude becomes more extreme after the group discusses it. This effect is called .
a. the principle of least interest b. decision polarization
c. responsibility diffusion d. social loafing
84. Product information that is transmitted by individuals to individuals is called .
a. reactance formation b. product shuffle
d. independent analysis
85. Which of the following is NOT one of three basic themes of complaint websites recently identified in a study of such Web sites?
a. identity b. injustice
c. legitimacy d. agency
86. With respect to social organization, some barnyard animals exhibit signs of a dominance- submission hierarchy. Which of the following terms best communicates such a hierarchy?
a. king-of-the-hill b. dog-eat-dog
c. follow-the-leader d. pecking order
87. Which of the following theorists is best known for arguing that an individual’s relationship to the means of production determines his position in society?
a. Max Weber
b. Horatio Alger c. Karl Marx
d. Thorstein Veblen
88. If a social researcher wanted to investigate social status in a small city, her best choice
for a questionnaire would be one that included questions or observations on education, area of residence, total family income per year, and .
a. ability to communicate via the Internet and other electronic communication channels b. ability to win friends and influence people
c. occupation prestige level of household head
d. membership groups of the primary income earners
89. Amos always felt that it was unfair that society created artificial divisions that discouraged him from having friends from different social structures. Which of the following terms describes the process that Amos is having difficulty with?
a. the “silver spoon” syndrome b. social stratification
d. reference group affiliation
90. Trisha grew up in a drug-ridden inner city neighborhood. Through sheer determination and intelligence, Trisha is now a medical doctor teaching on the staff of a large university hospital. Trisha is proud of what she has accomplished, but sometimes she feels like she isn’t quite
sure who she really is. The concept of assesses the impact of such inconsistencies.
a. invidious distinction b. habitus
c. status crystallization d. hierogamy
91. The process whereby a product formerly associated with a specific ethnic group is detached from its roots and marketed to other subcultures is called .
a. deculturization b. deethnicization c. de-alienation
92. People and institutions that teach the ways of a culture are called . a. progressive learning models
b. acculturation agents c. host cultures
d. ethnography facilitators
93. Through the process of , immigrants make the unfamiliar familiar by integrating symbols from their former lives into their new homes.
a. maintenance b. warming
c. assimilation d. resistance
94. Demographically, which of the following are the two most important characteristics of the
Hispanic American market?
a. It is a young group that is now almost totally bilingual.
b. It is a young group that has stabilized its growth rate in recent years. c. It is a mature group with money to spend.
d. It is a young group and the Hispanic family tends to be large in size.
95. Advertising to teens typically depicts .
a. qualified experts explaining the benefit of the product b. respected adults recommending the product
c. family members of two or three generations using the product together d. “in” teens using the product
96. Culture is best described as society’s . a. attitude
b. personality c. history
97. Which of the following is an object that is admired strictly for its beauty or because it inspires an emotional reaction?
a. a craft product
b. a reality-engineered product c. a trial product
d. an art product
98. A innovation is a new product that creates major changes in the way we live. a. discontinuous
b. globally continuous c. continuous
d. dynamically continuous
99. Gen Akoi greatly values his micro-refrigerator. The refrigerator is so small it will fit almost anywhere. Gen believes that the efficient use of space is one of the characteristics any good product should have. With respect to the functional areas of a cultural system, Gen is focusing on as a variable in selecting his products.
a. socio-psychology b. ecology
d. social structure
100. Pavel was an inventor. He read that there were several million people who could not sleep at night until they looked under the bed. He invented a light that could be put under a bed and went on automatically when someone looked there. Pavel’s product is designed to help people perform a .
b. rite of passage c. convention
d. symbolic exchange