Biology final exam solution correct answer key
Question 1 (1 point)
Which statement about evolution is FALSE?
Question 1 options:
According to evolutionary theory, you are related to a bacterium, to a yeast cell, to a snake, and to a whale. In fact, you are related to every species now alive on Earth, and to fossil species like dinosaurs as well.
Natural selection acts on genetic differences within a population to cause evolution. Individuals do not evolve.
Natural selection is about slow but steady progress. Through it, populations constantly get better-adapted. When this process is completed for all populations, evolution will come to a stop.
Evolution occurs constantly, without end; there is no endpoint in evolution.
Question 2 (1 point)
Negatively charged particles are found where in an atom?
Question 2 options:
In the nucleus
In a single layer outside the nucleus
In multiple layers outside the nucleus
Both inside and outside the nucleus
Question 3 (1 point)
You have a solution that has a pH of 8 and need it to be pH 5. What do you do?
Question 3 options:
Add a base
Add an acid
Add a buffer
Question 4 (1 point)
What characteristic of carbon makes it a good backbone for creating diverse and durable molecules?
Question 4 options:
Carbon is a large atom.
Carbon forms four covalent bonds.
Carbon forms hydrogen bonds.
All of the above
Question 5 (1 point)
Which of the following structures can be found together in eukaryotic cells?
Question 5 options:
cytoplasm and ribosomes
cytoplasm and plasma membrane
DNA and ribosomes
ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum
Question 6 (1 point)
Which of the following reactions or pathways is catabolic?
Question 6 options:
Breaking down ATP into ADP and phosphate.
Making starch from many glucose molecules.
Photosynthesis: which builds glucose from carbon dioxide using energy from light.
Making ATP from ADP and Phosphate.
Question 7 (1 point)
In a metabolic pathway, a typical control mechanism is to have: ________
Question 7 options:
the final product have no effect on the enzyme responsible for its own production.
the final product inhibit an early step.
a reactant inhibit a late step.
a lack of reactant stimulate the pathway.
Question 8 (1 point)
Mitosis results in ______ cells and meiosis results in _______ cells.
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Question 9 (1 point)
In beans yellow (Y) is dominant to green (y) and smooth (S) is dominant to wrinkled (s). What are the possible genotypes for the offspring of the following cross: YySS and YYSs.
Question 9 options:
YYSS, YYss, yySS, yyss
YS, yS, YS, yS
Yy, SS, YY, Ss
YYSS, YySS, YYSs, YySs
Question 10 (1 point)
Red rose color is incompletely dominant over white rose color. If a red rose is crossed with a pink rose, what percentage of the offspring will be pink?
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Question 11 (1 point)
One of the products of cellular respiration is ________.
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Question 12 (1 point)
An ecologist is studying all the animals, plants, fungi and bacteria, as well as the interaction among them, in a forest? He is studying the _________ in the forest.
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Question 13 (1 point)
The temperature optimum for an enzyme is 37C. What will most likely happen if you increase the temperature from 37C to 50C?
Question 13 options:
The enzyme activity will not be affected
The enzyme activity will increase
The enzyme activity will decrease
The pH will increase
Question 14 (1 point)
When celery is placed in a glass of pure water the solution inside its cells is _____ compared to the water.
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Question 15 (1 point)
An ecosystem can be characterized as:
Question 15 options:
populations + community.
all species, population, and community interactions for organisms in a given area.
the abiotic components of the environment.
all of the biological interactions, plus interactions with the abiotic environment, in a given area.
Question 16 (1 point)
Question 16 options:
prevent reactions from occurring
are found only in prokaryotes
all of those answers are correct
Question 17 (1 point)
This term refers to the maintenance of internal stability in a creature:
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Question 18 (1 point)
Steroids and waxes are
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Question 19 (1 point)
Active transport DOES NOT require ATP
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Question 20 (1 point)
In October of 2003, a raging wildfire swept through the mountain ecosystems in Southern California, burning everything in its path to the ground and driving away all of the animals. In order for the mountain ecosystem to re-establish itself, which member of the food web has to return first?
Question 20 options:
Question 21 (1 point)
Carbohydrates are not
Question 21 options:
stored potential energy
made mostly of nitrogen and carbon.
broken down by cellular respiration.
made by producers.
Question 22 (1 point)
A primary consumer would eat:
Question 22 options:
Question 23 (1 point)
Question 23 options:
One type of active transport
The movement of water across the cell membrane
The movement of molecules from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Question 24 (1 point)
Any individual organism has the potential to adapt to its environment, if it is given enough time and possesses a mechanism to generate variation.
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Question 25 (1 point)
Once an adaptation appears, it remains in all the descendants unless the species becomes extinct
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Question 26 (1 point)
When a founder population has a small gene pool, evolutionary change is more likely to be rapid than if the founder population has a large gene pool.
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Question 27 (1 point)
When speciation occurs, the result is a huge dramatic change in the new species.
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Question 28 (1 point)
When two groups are reproductively isolated, it can be reliably predicted that speciation will follow very soon.
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Question 29 (1 point)
Codons are locate on
Question 29 options:
all of those
Question 30 (1 point)
Fossil evidence suggests that human ancestors arose one time in Africa.
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Question 31 (1 point)
Sunlight influences vitamin D production is humans.
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Question 32 (1 point)
Mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells are very similar to prokaryotes
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Question 33 (1 point)
Organisms that live in habitats with high levels of competition are more likely to produce defensive chemicals than those that live with little competition.
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Question 34 (1 point)
The human population may continue to increase even though it surpasses carrying capacity.
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Question 35 (1 point)
A woman’s ovum will complete Meiosis II only, if fertilization has occurred.
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Question 36 (1 point)
One human disease is caused by a change in the DNA from GAA to GTA. This change is an example of:
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Question 37 (1 point)
The main function of a ribosome is to ____________________.
Question 37 options:
extract energy from glucose
store food in the form of fat
Question 38 (1 point)
The effectiveness of a medication containing growth hormone is tested on a group of young male rabbits 3 weeks of age. The best control group would be:
Question 38 options:
any group of rabbits
a group of young male rabbits 3 weeks of age, not given the medication
a group of young female rabbits 3 weeks of age, not given the medication
no control is required; just measure whether the rabbits grew
Question 39 (1 point)
The number of _______________ in the outer shell of an atom determines the type of chemical bonds an atom can make.
Question 39 options:
Question 40 (1 point)
You find a cell of a type you have never seen before. The cell has both a nucleus and a cell wall. Therefore, you conclude, it must be a _______________ cell.
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Question 41 (1 point)
The gene pool of a population may change due to:
Question 41 options:
natural selection and mutation
all of the above
Question 42 (2 points)
What are "keystone species" in a community?
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Question 43 (2 points)
What is "pseudoscience"?
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Question 44 (2 points)
What are dependent variables?
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Question 45 (8 points)
(Required) You have read that inorganic fertilizers contribute to water pollution and would like to make a switch from inorganic fertilizers to organic compost in your vegetable garden. A friend graciously gives you a truck load of his compost. As a good researcher and critical thinker you are not convinced that organic compost will yield better results than the inorganic fertilizer you have used for years with good results. To draw your own conclusion based on scientific evidence you decide to conduct an experiment in your garden. State a good hypothesis, design an experiment (include test subjects, sample size, control(s), dependent and independent variables, type of data collected) and hypothetical results/conclusion. Does your conclusion support the hypothesis?
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Question 46 (8 points)
(Required) The habitat of one species of tropical fish is red coral reefs. The large majority of the fish in this population are red. A few individual fish carry a mutation that prevents the production of the red pigment; as a result these individual fish are white.The temperature of the ocean where these fish live gets warmer and warmer over a 10 year period, and as a result the coral is bleached and turns white. Use what you have learned about natural selection to explain how this bleaching event may have affected the evolution this fish population (not including possible direct effects of warmer temperatures on the fish). Use appropriate terminology about evolution in your answer, including the terms natural selection, adaptive trait, and reproductive success.
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Question 47 (8 points)
Describe the major land biome where you live. How have human activities affected native species? Include specific examples.
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Question 48 (8 points)
You scoop up a water sample from a local pond nearby, because you are curious about the possible microbes that might live there. After looking at several slides that held drops of the sample, you noticed two different kinds of cells: One kind was very small and had no separate internal structures; the other kind was much larger, and it contained several kinds of internal structures that were physically different from each other. Please name each cell and briefly describe their similarities and differences.
Question 48 options:
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