### Focus of the Final Exam Complete Solution solution

**Focus of the Final Exam Complete Solution solution**

**Focus of the Final Exam**

The purpose of the Final Exam is to assess your understanding of the main statistical concepts covered in this course and to evaluate your ability to critically review a quantitative research article. The exam will consist of two parts: Part I includes three essay questions and Part II includes a research critique. All of your responses should be included in a single Word document for submission.

Please include the following general headings for each section of the written exam within your Word document:**Part I: Essay Questions**

1. Essay 1

2. Essay 2

3. Essay 3**Part II: Research Study Critique**

1. Introduction

2. Methods

3. Results

4. Discussion

Your complete Word document must include a title page with the following:

1. Student’s name

2. Course name and number

3. Instructor’s name

4. Date submitted

**Part I: Essay Questions**

There are three essay questions in this section. You must answer all three questions. The length of each essay should be one to two double-spaced pages (excluding title and reference pages). Use 12-point font and format your paper with regular 1-inch margins. Do not include the essay prompt in your document. It will not count toward the length requirement for your essays.*Essay 1*

A group of researchers conducted an experiment to determine which vaccine is more effective for preventing getting the flu. They tested two different types of vaccines: a shot and a nasal spray. To test the effectiveness, 1000 participants were randomly selected with 500 people getting the shot and 500 the nasal spray. Of the 500 people were treated with the shot, 80 developed the flu and 420 did not. Of the people who were treated with the nasal spray, 120 people developed the flu and 380 did not. The level of significance was set at .05. The proportion of people who were treated with the shot who developed the flu = .16, and the proportion of the people who were treated with the nasal spray was .24. The calculated p value = .0008.

For this essay, describe the statistical approaches (e.g., identify the hypotheses and research methods) used in this excerpt from a research study. Interpret the statistical results and examine the limitations of the statistical methods. Finally, evaluate the research study as a whole and apply what you have learned about hypothesis testing and inferential statistics by discussing how you might conduct a follow-up study.

Your essay must address the following points:

· Describe the research question for this experiment.

o What were the null and alternative hypotheses?

o Were the results of this test statistically significant?

o If so, why were they significant?

· Would the researchers reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis?

· Do the results provide sufficient evidence to support the alternative hypothesis?

· Was the sample appropriate for this study? Explain your answer.

· What are some possible limitations to this study?

· Discuss how you would conduct a follow up study to this one. Explain your answer.

· Describe the difference between practical and statistical significance.

*Essay 2*

A researcher has investigated the relationship between IQ and grade point average (GPA) and found the correlation to be .75.

For this essay, critique the results and interpretation of a correlational study.

· Evaluate the correlational result and identify the strength of the correlation.

· Examine the assumptions and limitations of the possible connection between the researcher’s chosen variables.

· Identify and describe other statistical tests that could be used to study this relationship.

Your essay response must address the following questions:

· How strong is this correlation?

o Is this a positive or negative correlation?

o What does this correlation mean?

· Does this correlation imply that individuals with high Intelligence Quotients (IQ) have high Grade Point Averages (GPA)?

· Does this correlation provide evidence that high IQ causes GPA to go higher?

o What other variables might be influencing this relationship?

· What is the connection between correlation and causation?

· What are some of the factors that affect the size of this correlation?

· Is correlation a good test for predicting GPA?

o If not, what statistical tests should a researcher use, and why?

*Essay 3*

A researcher has recorded the reaction times of 20 individuals on a memory assessment. The following table indicates the individual times:

2.2

4.7

7.3

4.1

9.5

15.2

4.3

9.5

2.7

3.1

9.2

2.9

8.2

7.6

3.5

2.5

9.3

4.8

8.5

8.1

In this essay, demonstrate your ability to organize data into meaningful sets, calculate basic descriptive statistics, interpret the results, and evaluate the effects of outliers and changes in the variables. You may use Excel, one of the many free online descriptive statistics calculators, or calculate the values by hand and/or with a calculator.

Next, separate the data into two groups of 10; one group will be the lower reaction times, and the second group will be the higher reaction times. Then, address the following points in your essay response:

· Calculate the sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis for each group.

· How do the two groups differ?

· Are there any outliers in either data group?

· What effect does an outlier have on a sample?

Lastly, double each sample by repeating the same 10 data points in each group. You will have a total of 20 data points for each group. After completing this, address the following in your essay response:

· Calculate the following for the new data groups: sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis.

· Did any of the values change?

· How does sample size affect those values?

**Part B: Research Study Critique**

In this second portion of the Final Exam, you will identify and critically evaluate a quantitative research article based on a social science topic. Your selected article must include a research question(s) and/or hypothesis(es) and utilize statistical analyses covered in the course. The article must be peer-reviewed and published within the last 10 years.

In the body of your critique, describe the statistical approaches used, the variables included, the hypothesis(es) proposed, and the interpretation of the results. In your conclusion, suggest other statistical approaches that could have been used and, if appropriate, suggest alternative interpretations of the results. This process will allow you to apply the concepts learned throughout the course in the interpretation of actual scientific research. Your critique must include the following sections:

1. **Introduction:** This section will include a general introduction of the quantitative study from a peer-reviewed source published within the last 10 years. The research questions and/or hypothesis(es) as well as the purpose of the study should be clearly defined.

2. **Methods:** Describe and evaluate the procedures and methods of data collection, measures/instruments used, the participants and how they were selected, and the statistical techniques used.

3. **Results:** In this section describe and critique the results presented in the study.

4. **Discussion:** Discuss and evaluate the efficacy of the results presented in the study. Address, the strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of the study, and suggest future research directions. Include additional forms of statistical analyses as part of the suggestions for future research.

**The Research Study Critique:**

1. Must be three to four double-spaced pages in length (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Use 12-point font, with 1-inch margins.

2. Must use the sections and headings described above.

3. Must address the article with critical thought by examining, reflecting, and evaluating the article from an objective viewpoint and by using facts to support your argument. Refer to the Critical Thinking Community website for further assistance.

4. Must end with a conclusion that summarizes your critical evaluation.

5. Must use one quantitative research study from a peer-reviewed source that was published within the last 10 years.

6. Must properly cite the source article in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

7. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

**Description**:

**Total Possible Score**: 27.00

**Essay One: Identifies Hypothesis and Research Methods and Evaluates Statistical Results**

Total: 4.00

Distinguished - Identifies the hypothesis and research methods and comprehensively evaluates the statistical results by thoroughly discussing how a follow up study might be conducted. Fully addresses all of the required essay components.

Proficient - Identifies the hypothesis and research methods and evaluates the statistical results by discussing how a follow up study might be conducted. Addresses the required essay components, but minor details are missing or inaccurate.

Basic - Identifies the hypothesis and research methods and partially evaluates the statistical results by briefly discussing how a follow up study might be conducted. Minimally addresses some of the required essay components, and relevant details are missing or inaccurate.

Below Expectations - Identifies the hypothesis and research methods and attempts to evaluate the statistical results; however, does not discuss how a follow up study might be conducted, all essay components are not addressed, and/or significant details are missing or inaccurate.

Non-Performance - The identification of the hypothesis and research methods and the evaluation of statistical results are either nonexistent or lack the components described in the assignment instructions.

**Essay Two: Critiques the Results and Interpretation of a Correlational Study**

Total: 4.00

Distinguished - Comprehensively critiques the results and interpretation of a correlational study by evaluating the correlations result, thoroughly identifying the strength of the correlation, examining the assumptions and limitations of possible connections between researchers’ chosen variables, and identifying and describing other statistical tests that could be used to study the relationship.

Proficient - Critiques the results and interpretation of a correlational study by evaluating the correlations result, identifying the strength of the correlation, examining the assumptions and limitations of possible connections between researchers’ chosen variables, and identifying and describing other statistical tests that could be used to study the relationship. One of the components of the critique is underdeveloped.

Basic - Partially critiques the results and interpretation of a correlational study by evaluating the correlations result, minimally identifying the strength of the correlation, examining the assumptions and limitations of possible connections between researchers’ chosen variables, and identifying and describing other statistical tests that could be used to study the relationship. Some of the components of the critique are underdeveloped.

Below Expectations - Attempts to critique the results and interpretation of a correlational study by evaluating the correlations result, thoroughly identifying the strength of the correlation, examining the assumptions and limitations of possible connections between researchers’ chosen variables, and identifying and describing other statistical tests that could be used to study the relationship; however, several of the components of the critique are significantly underdeveloped.

Non-Performance - The critique is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.

**Essay Three: Demonstrates the Ability to Organize Data into Meaningful Sets, Calculate Basic Descriptive Statistics, Interpret the Results, and Evaluate the Effects of Outliers and Changes in Variables**

Total: 4.00

Distinguished - Demonstrates a profound ability to organize data into meaningful sets, calculate descriptive statistics, and interpret the results, and evaluate the effects of outliers and changes in variables. Thoroughly addresses all of the required components of the essay.

Proficient - Demonstrates a competent ability to organize data into meaningful sets, calculate descriptive statistics, and interpret the results, and evaluate the effects of outliers and changes in variables. Addresses the required essay components, but minor details are missing or inaccurate.

Basic - Demonstrates a moderate ability to organize data into meaningful sets, calculate descriptive statistics, and interpret the results, and evaluate the effects of outliers and changes in variables. Minimally addresses some of the required essay components, and relevant details are missing or inaccurate.

Below Expectations - Demonstrates a minimal ability to organize data into meaningful sets, calculate descriptive statistics, and interpret the results; however, the required essay components are not addressed or significant details are missing or inaccurate.

Non-Performance - The demonstration is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.

**Research Study Critique: Introduction**

Total: 3.00

Distinguished - Includes well-written research question(s) and hypothesis (es) associated with the study, and accurately describes the concepts applied in the process in detail.

Proficient - Defines the research question(s) and hypothesis (es) associated with the study, and describes the concepts applied in the process. Some components are slightly underdeveloped.

Basic -Vaguely defines the research question(s) and hypothesis (es) associated with the study, and describes the concepts applied in the process. One or more components are underdeveloped.

Below Expectations - Attempts to define the research question(s) and hypothesis (es) associated with the study, and describes the concepts applied in the process. One or more components are missing.

Non-Performance - The identification of the questions and hypotheses are either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.

**Research Study Critique: Methods and Results**

Total: 3.00

Distinguished - Comprehensively describes the research methods and statistical approaches used in the article, including the statistical tests, sample size, and assumptions noted by the researcher(s).

Proficient - Describes the research methods and statistical approaches used in the article, including the statistical tests, sample size, and assumptions noted by the researcher(s). Some minor details are missing or inaccurate.

Basic -Minimally describes the research methods and statistical approaches used in the article, including the statistical tests, sample size, and assumptions noted by the researcher(s). Relevant details are missing or inaccurate.

Below Expectations - Attempts to describe the research methods and statistical approaches used in the study; however, significant details are missing and/or inaccurate.

Non-Performance - The description of research methods and statistical approaches is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.

**Research Study Critique:Discussion**

Total: 3.00

Distinguished - Thoroughly compares the efficacy of the research, including strengths and weaknesses.

Proficient - Compares the efficacy of the research, including strengths and weaknesses. Minor details are missing.

Basic - Minimally compares the efficacy of the research, including strengths and weaknesses. Relevant details are missing.

Below Expectations - Attempts to compare the efficacy of the research, including strengths and weaknesses; however, significant details are missing.

Non-Performance - The comparison of the efficacy, strengths, and weaknesses of the research is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.

**Conclusion**

Total: 3.00

Distinguished - Writes at least a one paragraph conclusion detailing the experience with writing a research report, fully addressees all components described in the assignment instructions.

Proficient - Writes a one paragraph conclusion detailing the experience with writing a research report, addressees most components described in the assignment instructions. Minor details are missing.

Basic - Writes a one paragraph conclusion detailing the experience with writing a research report, minimally addressees some components described in the assignment instructions. Relevant details are missing.

Below Expectations - Attempts to write a one paragraph conclusion detailing the experience with writing a research report; however, the conclusion is less than one paragraph, the components described in the assignment instructions are not addressed, or significant details are missing.

Non-Performance - The conclusion is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.

**Quantitative Literacy: Application/Analysis**

Total: 1.00

Distinguished - Uses the quantitative analysis of data as the foundation for profound and thoughtful judgments, drawing perceptive, competent conclusions from this work.

Proficient - Uses the quantitative analysis of data as the foundation for competent judgments, drawing rational and proficient conclusions from this work.

Basic - Uses the quantitative analysis of data as the foundation for conceivable judgments, drawing ordinary conclusions from this work.

Below Expectations - Attempts to use the quantitative analysis of data as the foundation for basic judgments and is hesitant about drawing conclusions from this work.

Non-Performance -The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.

**Written Communication: Control of Syntax and Mechanics**

Total: 0.50

Distinguished - Displays meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work contains no errors, and is very easy to understand.

Proficient -Displays comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work contains only a few minor errors, and is mostly easy to understand.

Basic - Displays basic comprehension of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work contains a few errors, which may slightly distract the reader.

Below Expectations - Fails to display basic comprehension of syntax or mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work contains major errors, which distract the reader.

Non-Performance - The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.

**APA Formatting**

Total: 0.50

Distinguished - Accurately uses APA formatting consistently throughout the paper, title page, and reference page.

Proficient - Exhibits APA formatting throughout the paper. However, layout contains a few minor errors.

Basic - Exhibits basic knowledge of APA formatting throughout the paper. However, layout does not meet all APA requirements.

Below Expectations - Fails to exhibit basic knowledge of APA formatting. There are frequent errors, making the layout difficult to distinguish as APA.

Non-Performance -The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.

**Page Requirement**

Total: 0.50

Distinguished - The length of the paper is equivalent to the required number of correctly formatted pages.

Proficient -The length of the paper is nearly equivalent to the required number of correctly formatted pages.

Basic - The length of the paper is equivalent to at least three quarters of the required number of correctly formatted pages.

Below Expectations - The length of the paper is equivalent to at least one half of the required number of correctly formatted pages.

Non-Performance - The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.

**Resource Requirement**

Total: 0.50

Distinguished -Uses more than the required number of scholarly sources, providing compelling evidence to support ideas. All sources on the reference page are used and cited correctly within the body of the assignment.

Proficient - Uses required number of scholarly sources to support ideas. All sources on the reference page are used and cited correctly within the body of the assignment.

Basic - Uses less than the required number of sources to support ideas. Some sources may not be scholarly. Most sources on the reference page are used within the body of the assignment. Citations may not be formatted correctly.

Below Expectations - Uses inadequate number of sources that provide little or no support for ideas. Sources used may not be scholarly. Most sources on the reference page are not used within the body of the assignment. Citations are not formatted correctly.

Non-Performance -The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.

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