SPSS ASSIGNMENT #5
Single Sample & Dependent Samples t Tests
SPSS instructions: (For more details, check the links provided under “Course Materials” in the Course Overview Folder (under Lessons).
t Test for a Single Sample:
Open SPSS
Enter the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients studied in #1 in the Data View window.
In the Variable View window, change the variable name to “ADL” and set the decimals to zero.
Click Analyze à Compare Means à OneSample T test à the arrow to move “ADL” to the Variable(s) window.
Enter the population mean (14) in the “Test Value” box.
Click OK.
t Test for Dependent Means:
Open SPSS
Enter the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients studied in Problem 2 in the Data View window. Be sure to enter the “before therapy” scores in the first column and the “after therapy” scores in the second column.
In the Variable View window, change the variable name for the first variable to “ADLPRE” and the variable name for the second variable to “ADLPOST”. Set the decimals for both variables to zero.
Click Analyze à Compare Means àPairedSamples T Test àthe arrow to move “ADLPRE” to the Paired Variable(s) window à “ADLPOST” and then click the arrow to move the variable to the Paired Variable(s) window.
Click OK.
Review the five steps of hypothesis testing and complete the following problems. Be sure to cut and past the appropriate result boxes from SPSS under each problem.
Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the average number of activities of daily living (shown below) obtained after therapy is significantly different from a mean number of activities of 14 that is typical for depressed people. (Clearly indicate each step).
Test the difference at the .05 level of significance and, for practice, at the .01 level (in SPSS this means you change the “confidence level” from 95% to 99%).
In Step 2, show all calculations.
As part of Step 5, indicate whether the behavioral scientists should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis at both levels of significance and calculate the effect size.
CLIENT 
AFTER THERAPY 
A 
17 
B 
15 
C 
12 
D 
21 
E 
16 
F 
18 
G 
17 
H 
14 
I 
13 
J 
15 
K 
12 
L 
19 
Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in numbers of activities of daily living (shown below) obtained before and after therapy are statistically significant at the .05 level of significance and, for practice, at the .01 level. (Clearly indicate each step).
In Step 2, show all calculations. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researchers should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis at both levels of significance and calculate the effect size.
CLIENT 
BEFORE THERAPY 
AFTER THERAPY 
A 
12 
17 
B 
7 
15 
C 
10 
12 
D 
13 
21 
E 
9 
16 
F 
8 
18 
G 
14 
17 
H 
11 
8 
SPSS ASSIGNMENT #6
The t Test for Independent Samples
SPSS instructions to run the t Test for Independent Samples: (For more details, check the links provided under “Course Materials” in the Course Overview Folder (under Lessons).
Once you have entered the data, click on Analyze, then on Compare Means, and then click on IndependentSamples T Test…
A dialog box will appear, with your variables (student, condition, score) on the left. Your options are (a) move one or more variables into the “Test Variable(s)” box to select your dependent variables(s) and (b) move one of your variables into the “Grouping Variable” box to select the independent variables (or identify the groups to be compared).
Make “?” the dependent variable by moving it to the “Test Variable(s)” box. Then make “?” your independent variable by moving it to the “Grouping Variable” box. Now, the “Define Groups” button is functioning, click on Define Groups and another dialog box appears. Here you must specify the two values of the condition variable that represent the two groups you are comparing. Click in the box next to Group 1 and type the number 1, then click in the box next to Group 2 and type the number 2. Now you can click Continue to return to the “IndependentSamples T Test” dialog box, and click on OK to run the analysis.
The scores on a job satisfaction inventory for both groups are listed in the table below.
Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the job satisfaction scores of the group that participated in counseling are statistically higher than the scores of employees who did not participate in counseling at the .01 level of significance.
In Step 2, show all calculations.
As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researcher should recommend counseling as a method to improve job satisfaction following industrial accidents based on evaluation of the null hypothesis and calculate the effect size.
PARTICIPATED IN COUNSELING 
DID NOT PARTICIPATE IN COUNSELING 
36 
37 
39 
35 
40 
36 
36 
33 
38 
30 
35 
38 
37 
39 
39 
35 
42 
32 
SPSS ASSIGNMENT #7
Analysis of Variance
SPSS instructions:
Open SPSS
Analyze the data for #1. Remember that SPSS assumes that all the scores in a row are from the same participant. In this study, there are 15 participants divided into three groups of five. Therefore, each of the 15 participants will be described by two variables, type of therapy and the number of activities of daily living performed.
If “1” represents the group receiving individual therapy for 1 hour every 2 weeks, “2” represents the group receiving 1 hour of individual therapy each week, and “3” indicates the group receiving 2 hours of individual therapy each week, the first participant will be described by entering “1” in the top cell of the first column in the Data View window and “16” in the top cell of the second column to indicate that the participant underwent 1 hour of therapy every 2 weeks and performed 16 activities of daily living. The second participant will be described by “1” and “15”, and the third by “1” and “18”.
When the two variables have been entered for the five participants in this group, repeat the process for participants who underwent 1 hour of individual therapy each week, using “2” to describe their therapy group. When the two variables for the five participants in this group have been entered, repeat the process for Group 3, entering “3” in the first column. In the Variable View window, change the first variable name to “THERAPY” and the second to “ADL” and set the decimals for both to zero.
Click Analyze à Compare Means à OneWay ANOVA àSince “THERAPY” is already selected, you can click the arrow to move the variable to the Factor window. Select “ADL” and click the arrow to move the variable to the Dependent List window, which instruct SPSS to conduct the analysis of variance on the number of activities performed.
Click “Options” and click the box labeled “Descriptive” to obtain descriptive statistics.
Click Continue.
Click OK.
Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in the number of activities in the following table performed by the three groups are statistically significant at the .05 level of significance. Clearly indicate each of the five steps.
Calculate the effect size for the study. Explain your results.
CLIENT 
GROUP 1 
GROUP 2 
GROUP 3 
1 
16 
21 
24 
2 
15 
20 
21 
3 
18 
17 
25 
4 
21 
23 
20 
5 
19 
19 
22 
The students have been divided into groups as follows: Students in Group 1 believe they are highly likely to succeed in the course, students in Group 2 believe they have an intermediate probability of success, and students in Group 3 believe they have little chance of success.
Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in level of motivation in the following table are statistically significant at the .05 level of significance. Clearly indicate each of the five steps.
Calculate the effect size for the study. Explain the results of the hypothesistesting procedure to someone who is familiar with the t test for independent means, but not with analysis of variance.
SUBJECT 
GROUP 1 (HIGH) 
GROUP 2 (INTERMEDIATE) 
GROUP 3 (LOW) 
1 
9.0 
3.5 
4.5 
2 
8.5 
5.5 
5.5 
3 
6.5 
6.5 
6.5 
4 
7.0 
3.5 
8.0 
5 
8.0 
4.5 
5.5 
6 
5.5 
7.0 
6.0 
The results are presented in the table below. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in effectiveness ratings are statistically significant at the .01 level of significance. Clearly indicate each of the five steps.
Calculate the effect size for the study. Explain your results.
CATEGORY 
N 
M 
S^{2} 
Judges 
6 
7.00 
1.99 
Attorneys 
6 
5.83 
1.37 
Jurors 
6 
7.83 
1.37 
Law Enforcement 
6 
3.00 
3.61 
SPSS ASSIGNMENT #8
ChiSquare
SPSS instructions:
ChiSquare Test for Goodness of Fit:
Open SPSS
Remember that SPSS assumes that all the scores in a row are from the same participant. In the study presented in #1, there are 20 students, some of whom have been suspended for misbehavior. The primary conflictresolution style used by each student is also entered. [Ignore the first variable in this analysis.]
When you have entered the data for all 20 students, move to the Variable View window and change the first variable name to “SUSPEND” and the second to “STYLE”. Set the number of decimals for both variables to zero.
Click Analyze à NonParametric Tests à ChiSquare
Click the variable “STYLE” and then the arrow next to the box labeled “Test Variable List” to indicate that the chisquare for goodness of fit should be conducted on the conflictresolution style variable.
Note that “All categories equal” is the default selection in the “Expected Values” box, which means that SPSS will conduct the goodness of fit test using equal expected frequencies for each of the four styles, in other words, SPSS will assume that the proportions of students each style are equal.
Click OK.
ChiSquare Test for Independence:
Open SPSS
For #2, you need to add the variable “SUSPEND” to the analysis. Remember that in this problem, we are interested in whether there was an association between conflictresolution style and having been suspended from school for misbehavior. Since the analysis will involve two nominal variables, the appropriate test is a chisquare test for independence.
Click Analyze à Descriptive Statistics à Crosstabs
Since “SUSPEND” is already selected, click the arrow next to the box labeled “Rows.”
Click the variable “STYLE” and click the arrow next to the box labeled “Columns.”
Click “Statistics” and click the box labeled “ChiSquare.”
Click Continue.
Click “Cells” and click the box labeled “Expected.”
Click Continue.
Click OK.










Method
Suspended 
Aggressive 
Manipulative 
Passive 
Assertive 
Total 
Yes 
7 
1 
1 
1 
10 
No 
1 
1 
1 
7 
10 
Total 
8 
2 
2 
8 
20 
Conflict Resolution
Suspension from School 
Assertive 
Other 
Total 
Yes 
1 
9 
10 
No 
6 
4 
10 
Total 
7 
13 
20 